Video - Dangerous shot https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=167311034609010 The defender is playing legitimate defense when the ball hits their body, therefore it is a free hit to the defense for a dangerously played ball. Legitimate defense is defined by a player either marking an attacker, or within 5 yards of the player shooting the ball AND attempting to defend that player.
The defender turned to the attacker taking the shot with the intent of protecting the goal like a goalkeeper, thus putting herself in a dangerous position from an otherwise legal shot at goal. With the goalkeeper nearby, this may not have prevented a sure goal which would have been a penalty stroke, but the defender allowed for her body to be used to defend a legal shot, thus a penalty corner would have been appropriate.
The push from the attack toward the goal is deflected by a defender which goes into the body of a teammate standing in front of the goal. If you believe the ball is on-cage and this foul prevented a probable goal then a stroke should be awarded. If you believe the ball is not on-cage then a penalty corner should be awarded.
The goalie misses the ball and obstructs the attacker bringing her to the ground. This foul prevented a probable goal and a penalty stroke was correctly awarded. If the goalie were to get the ball this is very likely no foul at all.